What is Toro?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

In Japan, a blue fin tuna is graded by the quality of the cuts of meat which can be obtained from it, particularly the prized toro, the fatty belly of the tuna. Tuna for sushi is carefully handled, to ensure that the flesh is not bruised or damaged. When the tuna arrives at the fish market, core samples of the flesh are taken with a special tool so that the color, texture, and flavor of the meat can be assessed before the tuna is priced. While sushi uses many different types of tuna including yellow fin and big eye, true toro is only taken from blue fin tuna.

True toro is only taken from blue fin tuna.
True toro is only taken from blue fin tuna.

Toro comes from the underbelly of the tuna, and is itself divided into grades which are distinguished based on the marbling of the meat, much like in grading beef. The most valuable toro, otoro, is from the underside of the fish close to the head. Chutoro, a lesser grade, comes from the belly in the middle and back of the fish, and is less marbled than otoro.

Toro is not widely eaten outside of Japan.
Toro is not widely eaten outside of Japan.

The unmistakable and delightful flavor of toro seduces most consumers once they try it. The cool, meaty texture of raw tuna combines with the fat of the belly to create a buttery sensation in the mouth, with the flesh of the tuna melting as you eat it. Toro is often used in sashimi and nigiri sushi, because the delicate flavor, outstanding texture, and beautiful marbling are clearly distinguishable in these two raw fish dishes. It is also sometimes used to make seared rare tuna, which has a delicious warm grilled exterior and a creamy cool interior.

Nigiri sushi assortment with the middle piece made with toro.
Nigiri sushi assortment with the middle piece made with toro.

A high quality piece of toro will be pale pink with rich white streaks. Otoro has more of the fatty streaks, which lend toro its unique and spectacular flavor. Chutoro is less veined with fat, although it is still more fatty than cuts from the upper side of the fish, such as akami. Toro is most flavorful during the winter, when tuna accumulate more fat, and may not be as spectacular out of season. It should also always be eaten fresh, as it does not stand up well to prolonged freezing.

Astoundingly, toro is not widely eaten outside of Japan, although it is sometimes available in specialty Japanese restaurants on the coasts of the United States and in some parts of Europe. Toro plays a delightful role in Japanese cuisine in Japan, and the majority of blue fin tuna harvested around the world end up in the fish markets of Japan, where the toro and the rest of the fish will command a higher price among connoisseurs.

Blue fin tuna can command high prices at fish markets such as Tsukiji in Tokyo.
Blue fin tuna can command high prices at fish markets such as Tsukiji in Tokyo.
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

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Discussion Comments


So, the reason that toro is so expensive is that bluefin tuna is basically an endangered species. Delicious or not, you really shouldn't eat it.


@umbre21: Wow, you have no clue apparently. Toro is the most prized, and most expensive bite of Bluefin you can find. It is not served much in the US because of the price, but it is available. A superb but inferior version is yellowfin tuna belly meat. Try that, try yellowtail (Hamachi) belly meat, and try salmon (sake) belly meat. Bluefin is so hard to get in the US because everyone believes it to be endangered and greenies will protest places that use it, so just try the yellowfin stuff and be blown away. Enjoy. --Hikarl in San Jose


@croydon - I think it's simply not as prized outside of Japan, but it would definitely still exist, since people do love their tuna.

All you'd have to do is go to a fish shop and ask them for a cut and describe what it is that you want. I'll bet the toro cut is used, but it's probably just not used as a special kind of fish. It's just lumped in with the rest of the tuna.

I remember when I was a kid no one in New Zealand would eat spare ribs and my father (who was from the USA) really missed them. So, he would just go to the butcher and tell him what he wanted.

Since the butcher thought of it as just another cut, dad got it for much cheaper than he would in the States.

You might be able to do the same thing with toro at a fish store.


It sounds like it's a real shame that toro isn't eaten much outside of Japan. It sounds as though it's delicious.

The only kinds of tuna I've ever had as sashimi were quite a firm red meat, without any of the streaks of fat being described here.

But, of course, the salmon often has that kind of streaking and comes close to the texture that's being described, of the melt in the mouth feeling and so forth.

So I can imagine what toro must taste like. I guess I'll have to go to Japan and see for myself one day!

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