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What is Durum Wheat?

Durum wheat, the hardy grain behind your favorite pastas and breads, boasts a rich nutritional profile and a robust, golden kernel. Revered for its high protein content and firm texture, it's the go-to choice for chefs crafting the perfect al dente experience. Intrigued by how this ancient grain shapes culinary traditions? Discover its journey from field to fork.
Anna T.
Anna T.

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is very high in protein, low in gluten, and tends to be quite dense. It is often considered to be one of the most nutritionally significant forms of wheat, and is frequently found in pastas. As compared to other wheat varieties it tends to be very heavy, which can make it difficult for people to use it in breads and other baked goods that need a lighter, airier quality; it is often prized in the flatbreads and thicker loaves of the Middle East and North Africa, though. Scholars typically think it originated from Eastern Europe and North Africa, and many of these regions are still important growing areas. Much of the world’s commercial production of durum happens in North America, however.

Nutritional and Physical Specifics

Wheat ears along with a small pile of wheat kernels (also known as wheat berries).
Wheat ears along with a small pile of wheat kernels (also known as wheat berries).

Though wheat is a pretty standard ingredient in a lot of different foods, there are many different varieties. Some grow better in certain regions than others, and they often have different nutritional profiles, even if they look more or less the same as they’re growing. How they’re prepared and harvested often matters a lot, too. Durum wheat is a specific type of wheat that is part of the tetraploid family.

Wheat bran.
Wheat bran.

There are two main things that make durum unique. First is its color: it tends to be a light yellow, while most comparable whole-grain varieties are tan or brown. It also contains much higher percentages of protein, fiber, and other vitamins and minerals than do most other wheats Durum is usually considered to be a “whole grain” when it’s used in full, and in these cases the entire wheat berry is ground up during processing. This berry contains the majority of the nutrients, and when used in the grinding process it allows the wheat to remain a viable source of nutrition.

Primary Uses

The majority of durum wheat is produced in North Dakota.
The majority of durum wheat is produced in North Dakota.

Durum wheat tends to be low in gluten. Gluten is a protein that has a number of different qualities, one of which is acting as a sort of adhesive when baking: it binds to other ingredients and helps keep the finished project from falling apart. People who can’t eat gluten for medical reasons aren’t usually able to eat durum, since gluten is present — but it is present in low enough qualities that bakers often get somewhat disappointing results when they try to use it in bread recipes that are designed for different types of more gluten-rich wheat.

Pasta is typically made from durum wheat.
Pasta is typically made from durum wheat.

Many of the traditional flat breads made in North Africa and the Middle East use exclusively durum, however, and this variety is also used to make many forms of cous cous, which is a grain dish resembling small “beads” that are pasta-like or rice-like in texture. This type of wheat is also very important in traditional Muslim cooking. Breads and related dishes made with durum tend to be very heavy and are often quite filling.

Durum wheat may be used in baked goods, although it often gives the treats a dense, heavy texture.
Durum wheat may be used in baked goods, although it often gives the treats a dense, heavy texture.

The texture of this wheat when ground makes it ideal for pasta, and most traditional Italian pasta recipes call for durum flour specifically. The relationship between durum and pasta is so strong that the wheat is sometimes referred to as “macaroni wheat.” Pasta made from this type of wheat is typically yellow in color because of the wheat's yellow endosperm, and it tends to be more nutritious than “white” pastas that are sold in many places, particularly in the West. Noodles that are white in color and not labeled whole-wheat or whole-grain have usually been processed without the berry, which may result in little to no nutritional value.

Relationship to Semolina

Pasta that is made from durum wheat is often labeled “semolina,” which is basically the name for milled or ground durum berries. Semolina is a grainy substance that may be off-white or yellowish in color. The next step after grinding the wheat is usually mixing it with water to form dough. Semolina dough is often very stiff, which generally makes it easier to use for molding into various pasta shapes. Pasta makers often use a variety of dies and metal discs to form the dough before drying and boiling it.

Where It’s Grown

This sort of wheat grows well in many different parts of the world, and is particularly prolific in the Middle East, parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Northern Africa, especially Egypt. It isn’t always grown commercially in these places, though. The state of North Dakota in the United States is where the majority of durum wheat is produced for export and commercial consumption. Roughly 73% of what is used in the United States comes from this state, although Montana, Minnesota, and South Dakota are also notable producers. Southern Canada also grows a lot. Countries outside the United States commonly use wheat made in these two countries because it is typically very strong and hardy. Just the same, the majority of wheat planted in the U.S. is fall-seeded winter wheat, and only about 6% is durum.

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Discussion Comments


All purpose flour is best for baking. I once made the mistake of using durum wheat for baking. It turned out terrible. Durum wheat is too dense and heavy for baking. It's impossible to shape and it doesn't rise like white flour.

I know it's healthier, but I prefer to eat it as pasta. I've never tried semolina, I'm not even sure what it looks like. Does semolina have the same nutrients that's found in durum wheat?


Semolina is not just good for pasta. It can be used to make a variety of dishes and desserts.

There is a great dessert made with semolina that's also very easy. You just have to cook semolina and pine nuts in butter until it becomes brown and then add milk and sugar. It's ready in ten minutes and tastes delicious.

Apparently, in some cultures, this dessert is served after a loved one passes away.


In the Middle East, there is a flat bread (like pita bread) that is made from whole durum wheat flour. This is the best bread because it's rich in vitamins and minerals and does not slow down the digestive system.

Plus, it's so filling. A small piece fills me right up.

When I was growing up we lived in Montana, and I remember all the wheat fields that you would pass as you drove through this state. I didn't know that such a small percentage of wheat raised in the United States is durum wheat.

This makes sense since there is more of a market for winter wheat. I like to buy my own grain to grind and make my own bread. I have never made pasta though, but if I did, I would use the durum wheat.

I like durum pasta because I think it has more flavor and think it is healthier for you as well. Using whole grains is something that I have always done and since my kids have grown up with this, that is all they have ever known too.


@anon151707-- I am not an expert on this, but if you are allergic to wheat I don't think you would be able to eat durum wheat. I have a friend who is on a gluten free diet, and he can't have any wheat products. There are a few grains that he can have, such as quinoa, but most of them are off limits for him.


Once I made the switch to durum wheat pasta, I have not gone back to eating the white pasta. I know the wheat pasta is more nutritious and much better for me. My husband wasn't quite as excited about this change.

What I decided to do was use half white pasta and half wheat pasta and gradually introduce this into his diet. I had better results doing it this way, and now both of us prefer the wheat pasta.


I've been told I am allergic to wheat - but can I eat durum wheat? Also, what is the best type of bread to eat as I have an intolerance to rice and rye also. UK

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    • Wheat ears along with a small pile of wheat kernels (also known as wheat berries).
      Wheat ears along with a small pile of wheat kernels (also known as wheat berries).
    • Wheat bran.
      By: Vidady
      Wheat bran.
    • The majority of durum wheat is produced in North Dakota.
      By: Ruslan Olinchuk
      The majority of durum wheat is produced in North Dakota.
    • Pasta is typically made from durum wheat.
      By: Francesco83
      Pasta is typically made from durum wheat.
    • Durum wheat may be used in baked goods, although it often gives the treats a dense, heavy texture.
      By: sarahdoow
      Durum wheat may be used in baked goods, although it often gives the treats a dense, heavy texture.