Wheat gluten is a meat-like, vegetarian food product, sometimes called seitan, mock duck, gluten meat, or wheat meat. It is made from the gluten, or protein portion, of wheat, and used as a meat substitute, often to imitate the flavor and texture of duck, but also as a substitute for other poultry, pork, beef, and even seafood. Wheat gluten is produced by rinsing wheat flour dough in water until the starch separates from the gluten and washes away.
Wheat gluten has a long history in China, where it has been eaten since ancient times. It may have originated as a meat substitute for vegetarian Buddhists. There are three main varieties of seitan available in China: oily, steamed, and baked spongy gluten. The oily or oil fried variety is deep fried into small balls, and sometimes larger balls stuffed with tofu or meat. The small balls are sometimes sold as imitation abalone, and are commonly served with mushrooms or boiled in soup or stew.
Steamed gluten is usually in the form of a sausage shape, though larger blocks of it may be sold as mock ham. The sausage-like product is dense and may be sliced or torn into strips before using in recipes. Baked spongy gluten is made by leavening and baking or steaming raw gluten. It may be sold fresh, frozen, or in cans or bottles, and sometimes marinated with peanuts or mushrooms. Baked spongy gluten is the most absorbent variety and has a soft, juicy texture.
In Japanese markets, wheat gluten is usually sold either raw or dry baked. The raw variety is blended with sticky rice flour and millet and shaped into blocks, often cut into novelty shapes and colored. It is also used in a confection called fu-manju, in which the wheat gluten is sweetened, filled with a sweet filling, wrapped in leaves, and steamed. The dry baked variety of wheat gluten is leavened with baking powder and sold in hard, crouton-like pieces that are typically added to soup to lend texture.
Wheat gluten is a staple of the macrobiotic diet, which stresses avoiding refined foods and eating a balanced diet of locally grown foods according to the season of the year and the gender, age, and health status of the individual. In the Western world, wheat gluten is usually associated with either macrobiotic or vegetarian diets. It is usually available at Asian markets and health food stores, though increasingly can be found in supermarkets. It is often sold as a ready to eat snack or in shapes resembling meat products, like ribs and patties.